THE TIMELINE

Check out our  detailed timeline chronicling the history of intermarriage in Weimar and Nazi Germany below.

April 7,1933

The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service is passed in the Reich. It included the “Aryan Paragraph,” which excluded Jews, including those in intermarriage, from working for the state government at all levels. An Aryan Paragraph refers to a piece of legislation that lowers the status of Jews.

June 30, 1933

Workers in the German civil service must prove their marriage partners’ Aryan ancestry. The intermarried workers were dismissed from their positions entirely. Though intermarriage was not yet banned, Justice Minister Kerrl commented that the disadvantages of having Jewish relatives would certainly discourage them.

July 1933

The popular Marriage Loan Program did not apply to Jewish-gentile intermarried couples. The program awarded loans to German couples whose wives left the workforce to have children, forgiving one-fourth of the loan for each child the couple bore .

December 1933

Intermarried couples were no longer recognized as adoptive parents to children, as announced in December of 1933 by the Reich Interior Ministry.

August 1934

The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service’s initial exemption for German Jews who had served in World War I was eliminated following the death German President Paul von Hindenburg in August 1934.

September 1935

According to The Right of Exception for Jews in European Countries, Jewish individuals and Intermarried Gentiles were prohibited from saluting the national flag, hoisting the flag, and showing the Imperial Colors. This is under the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor.

1939

A German census of 1939 showed that 57.5% of intermarried men in Vienna, were “non-Aryan”, as were 64% in Hamburg and 65% in Berlin. By May of 1939, the Reich found 4,443 intermarried couples in the Austrian city of Danubian, compared with 5,919 in the German city of Berlin.

April 1939

Law of 30 April 1939 concerning Jewish Tenants requires “non-privileged” intermarried couples to move from buildings shared with “Aryans” into “Jewish Houses” confined to Jews alone. Non-Jewish in intermarriages that were not privileged were required to divorce or move with their partners. Eva Klemperer, a non-Jew married to the JewishGerman Professor Victor Klemperer, who survived because he was intermarried, moved into a Jewish house in Dresden.

October 1941

October saw the beginning of deportations of German Jews who wore the Star of David. The Jewish individuals in both “privileged” and “non-privileged” marriages were “temporarily held back” from deportation (vorläufig zurückgestellt). If, however, the ‘Aryan’ partner within an intermarried couple agreed to divorce or died, the protections granted to the Jewish spouse were revoked.

The regime’s policy of deporting intermarried Jews whose partners had died or divorced demonstrated that the reason it waited “temporarily” was due to Aryans who would not consent to let go of their Jewish partners.”

November 6, 1941

Popular Jewish Actor Joachim Gottschalk along with his Jewish wife and eight-year-old son, committed suicide. Gottschalk was urged by Goebbels to divorce his Jewish wife, excluding him from film roles and stage performances. Goebbels wrote that  “could no longer find any way to escape the conflict between state and family. I will thus immediately see to it that this case . . .  is not used to construct alarming rumors.” Trying to limit popular awareness of his miscalculation, Goebbels forbade obituaries and banned anyone from attending Gottschalk’s funeral. Nevertheless, a number of Gottschalk’s professional associates attended the funeral.

January 20, 1942

Wannsee Conference.

Reinhard Heydrich discusses plans to kill 11 million Jews, but spends much time speaking of strategy on how to kill the 30,000 Jews in intermarried relationships. judging by the minutes of the conference recorded by Adolph Eichmann, almost half of the conference was devoted to how to deport Jews in intermarried couples from the German Reich and their Mischlinge children.

January 1942

The Reich banned German Jews from buying non-Jewish newspapers. When intermarried Germans disobeyed, providing non-Jewish newspapers to their Jewish partners, the ban was modified. At first, it agreed to relax the law by allowing only those in privileged intermarriages to receive newspapers (since allowing Jews in nonprivileged intermarriages would mean “too much of a violation of the rule”).

When it became clear that the regime had no better means of keeping newspapers from reaching Jews in nonprivileged intermarriages than from Jews in privileged intermarriages, the law was finally abandoned: “A check on whether someone ordering newspapers or magazines is part of a Jewish mixed marriage, and above that whether the person might be a part of a privileged or nonprivileged mixed marriage, is practically impossible to carry out, since a partner of a mixed marriage is not outwardly apparent as  such.”

March 2, 1942

Joseph Goebbels contemplates the effect of Jewish intermarriage on the English population.

 

From the diary of Joseph Goebbels:

“It is astonishing how strongly indeed the English Volk, above all those in the highest circles, have been corrupted by Jewry (verjudet) and hardly show English character any longer. That can in fact be traced back mainly to the fact that the top ten thousand are so strongly infected by Jewish marriages that they can barely still think like English.”

December 6, 1942

Goebbels’ diary entry reflected on the rejected proposal for annulling mixed marriages. He recorded that Hitler had commissioned him to “push out the unprivileged full Jews from Germany.” He stated “A new proposal for the liquidation of Jewish marriages was presented to me….  It would bring about so much unrest and confusion in public opinion that at least at the moment the affair is not worth it.  In addition the Führer commissioned me to first ensure that the unprivileged full Jews are removed from Germany.  Once they are all gone we can approach the remnants of the Jewish problem that still remain.”  Goebbels’ use of the word “privileged” at this point indicates that he wanted to deport all Jews wearing the star—including those full Jews in intermarriage who lived in “nonprivileged intermarriages.”

February 18th, 1943

By February, Goebbels intended for Berlin’s intermarried Jews to be completely detained.

From the diary of Joseph Goebbels:

“The Jews in Berlin will now once and for all be pushed out. With the final deadline of February 28 they are supposed to be first brought to collection centers and deported, up to 2,000, batch by batch, day by day. I have set for myself a goal to make Berlin  Entirely free of Jews by the middle or end of March at the latest.”

February 27, 1943

Himmler’s RSHA permitted and called for arrests, by the name of ‘the Elimination of Jews from Reich Territories Actions’, which led to the arrest of intermarried Jews and the Rosenstrasse Protest in Berlin, Germany.

March 1943

By this time, the Rosenstrasse protest was still occurring.

From the diary of Joseph Goebbels:

“The evacuation of the Jews from Berlin did in fact lead to some disagreements. Unfortunately, the Jews and Jewesses from privileged marriages were arrested too at first, which led to great fear and confusion. Because of the short-sightedness of industrialists, who warned the Jews in time, the supposed arrest of Jews on one day was a flop. In total, 4,000 Jews evaded us. They are now going around unregistered and without housing in Berlin and comprise, of course, a great danger for the public. I order the police, army and party to put everything into settling up with these Jews as fast as possible.

The arrest of Jews and Jewesses from privileged marriages had a particularly strong, sensational effect on artist circles. Because precisely among actors these privileged marriages exist in a certain number. But in the moment, I can’t pay overly much attention to that. If a German man can still even now manage to live in a legal marriage with a Jewess, then that speaks against him absolutely, and during war there is no longer time to be all too sentimental in judging this question.”

March 6, 1943

25 intermarried Jewish men (who had no children) were selected to be sent from Rosenstraße 2-4 to Auschwitz. The 25 men, 12 days into their labor at Auschwitz, were told that they were to prepare to return to Berlin. After returning, they were charged with other crimes and sent to different labor camps. Most of the other intermarried Jewish men were released this day.

Goebbels contemplates the protest of Jewish evacuations and details a plan to react:

“The SD considers this exact moment to be right for proceeding with the evacuation of the Jews. Unfortunately, some disagreeable scenes have played out in front of a Jewish Old People’s Home. The people gathered together in large throngs and even sided with the Jews to some extent. I will commission the security police not to continue the Jewish evacuations during such a critical time. Rather we want to put that off for a few weeks; then we can carry it out all the more thoroughly. One has to intervene all over the place, to ward off damages.”

January 1944

Hitler ordered that the discussions of the removal of intermarried Jews needed to stop.

He did this in order to distance the Nazi party from the publicity surrounding the

Rosenstrasse protest.

Information for this timeline was collected by Carmellina Moersch & Sheighlin Hagerty

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